The Bolsheviks bestrode the bourgeois Russian revolutionary movement
and announced the victory of the Communist Revolution over Tsardorn.
The Soviet Communism which emerged and which was to prove one of
the most formidable factors of the twentieth century., was so closely bound
with the nomadic traditions of the steppe-lands and so alien to Western
civilisation that it could never have attained, through oral propaganda
alone any serious success in Europe,, nor a success based on a local revolu-
tion in any particular country.
During the heroic epoch of Bolshevism (the word Bolshevism has a
sublime meaning in the Soviet Union) they believed in an * international
proletariat' and the imminence of revolution in other countries t eager '
to become part of the Soviet's * country of freedom/ But the period of
waiting for the ripening of these revolutions—the result of natural social
friction and changes—seemed too long> therefore Moscow, who in the
early days had established the law of the * dictatorship of the proletarian
minority ' over the other sections of society, admitted without further
delay the necessity of introducing Soviet Communism in other countries
par force. Thus, still using the lofty slogans of socialism and still referring
to the doctrines of Marx, Engels and Kautsky, the new rulers once more
joined up with the channels of Tsarist imperialism and took a stand among
the ranks of the most reactionary of the Powers. In the era of preparation
for a new war, which they termed c the era of building of socialism in one
state/ the Bolsheviks, tired of awaiting the anticipated people's revolt in
Europe, applied the thesis that revolution could only be effected through
the activities of the Soviet Union—by an external action. Therefore,
the work of the Communist Party in every other country lay in helping
to bring about a victory of the Red Army by any means and at any cost
—increasing thereby the power of Moscow. The Communists throughout
the world were now levelled to the role of Moscow agents while the
world revolution was to materialise only through the military offensive
of the U.S.S.R. It was not the economical readiness of a certain country
to change the existing capitalist order (as had been admitted heretofore),
but her distance from the U.S.S.R., which was to become the decisive
factor in determining her order and place in the comingc world revolution.5
For a number of years Moscow had visualised Germany*' as the nearest
* Stalin, J., Bokheu>k> 1924, No. 11.
"... of all European countries^ Germany is the one most pregnant with
revolution; a revolutionary victory in Germany is a victory all over Europe. If
the revolutionary shake-up of Europe is to begin anywhere, it will begin in Ger-
many. Only Germany can take the initiative in this respect., and a victory of
revolution in Germany is a full guarantee of victory of the international revolution."
Until 1934, Germany represented a country of revolutionary hopes for the
Kremlin. As late as 1933, the official Bolshevik had written: " In Germany
the proletarian revolution is nearer to realisation than in any other country . . .
He who does not understand the German problem, does not understand the path
of the development of proletarian revolution in Europe."
It was clear that the Moscow overlords had for a considerable period taken
their wishful thinking to be actual fact.